Amazon Project Kuiper satellite constellation

Amazon’s Project Kuiper completes successful tests of optical mesh network in low Earth orbit.

Following the demonstration of 100 Gbps optical links between its prototype satellites, Project Kuiper will include laser links on every satellite in its constellation to form a space mesh network.

Project Kuiper has been conducting extensive testing of its end-to-end communications payload and network since the successful launch and deployment of two prototype satellites in October 2023. We confirmed in November that we had validated all priority systems and subsystems within 30 days of launch, and we shared a first look at demos via the Kuiper network. Our optical inter-satellite link (OISL) capabilities were one critical system that was part of that testing but was kept secret until now.

Amazon’s KuiperSat-1 and KuiperSat-2 prototype satellites are equipped with advanced optical communications payloads. Amazon has completed multiple successful demonstrations of that next-generation technology, maintaining 100 gigabit per second (Gbps) links over nearly 621 miles (1,000 kilometers) for the duration of the test window. These tests validated the final component of Project Kuiper’s advanced communications architecture, and the results guarantee that OISLs will be operational on our first production satellites, which are scheduled to launch in the first half of 2024.

“With optical inter-satellite links across our satellite constellation, Project Kuiper will effectively operate as a mesh network in space,” said Rajeev Badyal, Project Kuiper’s vice president of technology. “This system is designed fully in-house to optimize for speed, cost, and reliability, and the entire architecture has worked flawlessly from the very start. These immediate results are only possible because we approached our OISL architecture as one part of a fully integrated system design, and it’s a testament to this team’s willingness to invent on behalf of customers. We’re excited to be able to support these next-generation OISL capabilities on every Kuiper satellite from day one.”

Project Kuiper tested OISL technology extensively in the lab before testing in space.
Project Kuiper tested OISL technology extensively in the lab before testing in space.

Project Kuiper Operating a next-generation orbital laser mesh network

OISLs send data between spacecraft as they orbit the planet using infrared lasers. Instead of being limited to sending data between a single satellite and ground antennas, OISLs enable satellites to send data directly to other satellites in a constellation. Every Project Kuiper satellite will be outfitted with multiple optical terminals to connect multiple satellites at once, establishing high-speed laser cross-links that will form a secure, resilient mesh network in space. These capabilities increase throughput and reduce latency across our constellation, allowing Kuiper customers to be connected across land, sea, air, and space.

Another benefit of OISLs is the speed at which you can move data around the world. Light travels faster in space than it does through glass, which means that Kuiper’s orbital laser mesh network can move data approximately 30% faster than if it traveled the equivalent distance via terrestrial fiber optic cables. And because Project Kuiper leverages AWS service and infrastructure to route data traffic, we can reduce latency even further across our network.

Advancing the state of the art in OISL technology

OISLs represent a long-standing challenge for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite broadband connectivity. To establish and maintain laser links, you need to minimize the spread of light to ensure a strong signal; you need to establish contact across distances of up to 1,616 miles (2,600 km); you need to maintain that connection between spacecraft moving at speeds of up to 15,534 miles per hour (25,000 km per hour); and you need to accomplish all of that while compensating for satellite and flight dynamics. Project Kuiper designed a state-of-the-art optics and control system capable of addressing these challenges.

Although this system performed well in extensive lab testing, our Protoflight mission provided an opportunity to test the entire architecture in space. We successfully established the first optical links between our two prototype satellites in early November, allowing us to send and receive data at speeds of up to 100 Gbps for entire test windows of an hour or more. These tests demonstrated our ability to establish a single bidirectional link between two satellites, and preliminary data suggests that our design will be able to maintain cross-links between multiple satellites at the same time, which is a critical feature of a next-generation mesh network in space.

Delivering resilient, secure connectivity for enterprise and public sector customers

Amazon’s OISL capabilities will enable Project Kuiper to move and land data anywhere in space via its mesh network, providing secure, resilient connectivity to a diverse set of enterprise and public sector customers. This is especially important for those operating in areas without a nearby ground station, such as a cruise liner in the middle of the ocean or a plane flying across the Atlantic, allowing them to securely uplink data from virtually anywhere on Earth, transmit it through space via laser communications, and downlink it to their desired destination.

“Amazon’s optical mesh network will provide multiple paths to route data through space, creating resiliency and redundancy for customers who need to securely transport information around the world,” said Ricky Freeman, vice president of Kuiper Government Solutions, a dedicated division within Project Kuiper focused on serving public sector customers. “This is especially important for those looking to avoid communications architectures that can be intercepted or jammed, and we look to forward to making these capabilities available to public sector customers looking to move and land data from remote locations to their desired destination.”

Project Kuiper is already supporting public sector optical communications technology research and development, and we look forward to bringing our advanced communications capabilities to more enterprise and government customers as we begin to deploy our OISL-equipped production satellites.

Project Kuiper is starting satellite manufacturing in preparation for a full-scale deployment in the first half of 2024, and we expect to have enough satellites deployed to start early customer pilots in the second half of 2024.

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